An entity that is a human being is mostly obvious to determine as such. Also, each entity that, sometimes even remotely, looks and behaves like a human being is implicitly considered as one; each entity also has the right to explicitly declare him/herself as a human being. In cases of doubt (robot, alien, ...) which should be rare, the entity must consent to a physical/medical determination procedure executed by a certified medical professional. The doubt can be raised by any citizen to the Persons Admin state official who organises the procedure immediately and the result must be present same day. The entity has the standard accusation obligations and rights. Everybody must accept the final scientific/medical determination. Also, each human being's identity cards contain 3 stages of physical identification properties: - picture (for simple and quick authentication) - advanced non-invasive testable properties (fingerprint, iris, ...) - dna-code (requiring dna probes taken from the entity for authentication) As well as a PIN and 2nd device authentication possibilties. Each human being in a state (also visitors) must carry the ID if outside the normal residential and work areas where he/she is known. He/she must show the ID on interactions and/or to state officials. Unknown people are subject to officials controls. IDs of other states are accepted if they fulfill the standards as described above. Visitors/human beings without such an ID must immediately, normally upon state entrance, get such an ID by the next state official (at no cost). If lost or any duplicate ID is made (detectable by dna), it costs p_id_cost_percentage (5%).
When does a foetus start to be a human being? It is in the competence of the mother to decide as long as the pregnancy is not visible/obvious. As soon as visible/obvious, the Persons Admin state official registers the human being as unborn child and relates it to the mother (and optionally to the father if around; but this is another story).
When does a human being is considered dead? Again, it is the Persons Admin state official who organises the Medical procedure performed by a certified medical professional. It is important that even a presumably dead body remains untouched in the responsibility of the family for 3 days. Then, it is released to be buried as per his/her will or the family's decision if no will is present. All respect and peacefulness must be continued to be applied to the dead human being.